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Suffrage and Voting Rights in Relation to Historical Performance of Nations & Conflicts Between Nations
 
An attempt to discern what forms of government produce the best national performance, and how governments featuring different levels of democracy can be expected to interact with each other
 
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I felt compelled to do some research regarding how historically speaking the level of democracy in nations has corresponded with national performance in terms of achieving national goals, and national conflict. Such research could reveal something regarding the kinds of government that produce strong nations. It could also reveal something regarding how governments featuring various levels of democracy can be expected to interact with each other in the future, based on how they have interacted with each other in the past.
 
A significant percentage of the US and world populations has become alarmed regarding large trade surpluses posted by nations with what is perceived to be a history of a low level of citizen participation in government decision making, combined with large trade deficits posted by nations with what is perceived to be a history of a high level of citizen participation in government decisions making. I wanted to improve my ability to understand the extent to which various nations have in the past allowed citizens to participate in government decision-making, and how this has correlated with their interactions with other nations.
 
I found a dataset (Excel Polity IV times-series data) put together by some political scientists at http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/inscr.htm. Column J of the dataset gives a rating between +10 and -10 to many different nations for every year from 1820 to 2000 AD. The numbers are like a scale between +10 representing the most democratic governments, which allow the most citizen participation in electing governments and controlling government decisions, and -10, which represents the least democratic governments, the ones that allow the least citizen participation in government decisions. The creators of the database label these ratings 'polity ratings'.
 
In table 1 below, for the nations for which I provide the 'polity rating' during various years, I provide the 'polity rating' every time the 'polity rating' changes over the 1820-2000 time period. I also provide facts relevant to the performance of the various nations when it comes to tasks such as achieving national economical and physical security.
 
I  also have put together a short list of important conflicts that the US has been involved in since its inception, combined with 'polity ratings' the creators of the 'Polity' database assigned to the belligerents for the time period during which the conflict occurred:
 
American Revolutionary War, 1775-83. Fought between the US, at that time rating (estimate) +3 on the polity or democracy scale, and the UK, at that time rating (estimate) -3 on the polity or democracy scale.
 
War of 1812 (1812-15). Fought between the US, at that time rating +4 on the polity/democracy scale, and the UK, at that time rating -2 on the polity/democracy scale.
 
The American Civil War, fought 1861-65, featured the North of the US vs the South. The polity rating for the US as a whole immediately prior to the civil war was +8.
 
The 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War between was fought between Prussia, rating -4 on the polity/democracy scale, and France, rating at -3 on the polity/democracy scale.
 
The 1898 Spanish-American war pitted the US, whose polity/democracy rating at the time was +10, against Spain, whose polity/democracy rating at the time of the war was +4.
 
The primary combatants in World War I fought from 1914 to 1918 (rating on polity/democracy scale in parentheses): Allies -- US (+10), UK (+8), France (+8), Russia (-3.5); Axis -- Germany (+2), Austria-Hungary (-4).
 
Primary combatants in World War II, 1939-45 (rating on polity/democracy scale in parentheses): Allies -- US (+10), UK (+8), France (+10); Axis -- Germany (-9), Japan (+1).
 
The 1950-53 Korean War was fought between (polity rating at time of war given in parentheses): the US (+10), and South Korea (-3) vs North Korea (-7) and China (-8) assisted by the USSR (-9).  Subsequent to the conclusion of the Korean war, North Korea's polity rating steadily declined to -9 in the year 2000, while South Korea's polity rating after rising to no higher than -6 in the year 1988, rose to +8 by the year 2000. In the year 2000 polity ratings for nations involved were: US, +10; former USSR Russia +6; China -7.
 
The Vietnam war was fought from 1959-1976 (polity ratings during war in parentheses) the US (+10) and South Vietnam (polity rating not available) on one side vs North Vietnam (polity rating not available) supported by Russia (-7) and China (-8).
 
Below Table 1, you can find several links related to the information presented in Table 1.
 
Table 1 Suffrage, Voting Rights, Democracy, & National Events & Powers Historically in Selected Nations
 
Note: For from 1800 to 2000 AD, the 'polity ratings' for nations that this table lists such ratings for, are reported every time that they changed during 1800-2000. The scale runs from +10 most democratic to -10 least democratic
 










Time period

USA                            

UK                                      

Ire-
land

Germany

Austria
Hungary

France                        

Russia                             

India

Pakistan

China

Japan

Korea

Vietnam

Taiwan

Spain

Portugal









Pre-1600s AD

Late 1500s, first British colonies and trading posts established, these were the precursors of the British empire







Mongol Empire - 33.2 million km² or 12.82 million mi² (under Khublai Khan in 1268)




An article by Mr. Morgan Bedford entitled "New Spain's Fifty Magical Years (1492-1542)" appeared in the July, 1999, issue of the Ojo Del Lago... highly praises the achievements of Cortes and other Spanish explorers and conquerors in spreading the Spanish empire over such a vast area of the world in so short a time.
1500 AD
Portuguese
explorers
land in Brazil









1600s AD

























1700-1749 AD

























1750-1799 AD
In the colonial period before 1776, and for some time after, only adult white male property owners could vote; enslaved Africans, free black people and women were not extended the franchise. On the American frontier, democracy became a way of life, with widespread social, economic and political equality.[34]
1783, US victor in Revolutionary War, achieves independence from the British homeland. By the year 2000, the US will be a nation of 300 million persons, 75% of whom have British ancestry.
1783, US victor in Revolutionary War, achieves independence from the British homeland. By the year 2000, the US will be a nation of 300 million persons, 75% of whom have British ancestry.


1785:
September 9, 1785: Seven months after the Bavarian government's first decree against the Illuminati,  Utzschneider, Grünberger, and Cosandey, who defected from the Illuminati at the time it was ruled by Weishaupt the founder of the Illuminati,  testify to the Bavarian govt re the criminal (anti- Elector Theodore)doctrines and behavior of the Bavarian Illuminati

In 1789, Revolutionary France adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and, although short-lived, the National Convention was elected by all males in 1792.[36]








Spanish Empire - 19 million km² or 7.33 million mi² (under King Charles III r. 1759-1788)
 
"In terms of world dominion of territory, the Spanish Empire was at its peak in the year 1786."










1800-1849 AD
1800 Polity Rating: +4
 
1809 Polity Rating: + 9
 
By the 1840s almost all property restrictions were ended and nearly all white adult male citizens could vote; and turnout averaged 60–80% in frequent elections for local, state and national officials.
1849 Polity Rating: +10
1800 Polity Rating: -2
 
1815 British Empire 4.3 million square miles. By way of comparison the Roman Empire comprised 120 million persons and 2.5 million square miles
 
Reform Act 1832 - extended voting rights to adult males who rented propertied land of a certain value, so allowing 1 in 7 males in the UK voting rights
1837 Polity rating: +3
 
1837 British Empire 3 million square miles
 
1849 Polity Rating: +3

1800 Prussia
Polity Rating: -10
 
1806 Prussia Polity Rating: -66
 
1813 Prussia Polity Rating: -10
 
1840 Prussia Polity Rating: -9
 
1848 Prussia Polity Rating: -8
 
1849 Prussia Polity Rating: -8
 
 
 

 
1800
Austria Polity Rating: -10
 
1848 Austria Polity Rating: -6
 
1849 Austria Polity Rating: -6
1800 Polity Rating: -8
 
1814
Polity Rating: -4
 
1830 Polity Rating: -1
 
Universal male suffrage was definitely established in France in March 1848 in the wake of the French Revolution of 1848.[37]
1848 Polity Rating: +6
 
1849 Polity Rating:  +6
1800 Russia
Polity Rating: -10
 
1849 Polity Rating: -10


1800 China
Polity Rating: -6
 
1849 Polity Rating: -6
1800 Polity Rating: -10
 
1849 Polity Rating: -10



1800 Spain polity rating:
 -10
 
The Spanish empire in the Americas held together politically for more than 300 years and in the early nineteenth century encompassed over twelve million square miles and more than 15 million people.  Remnants of the Spanish empire in the Americas and Asia lasted until 1898
1808 Spain polity rating: -66
 
1814 Spain polity rating:
-9
 
1820
Spain polity rating:
-4
 
1823 Spain polity rating: -6
 
1836 Spain polity rating: -88
 
1837 Spain Spain polity rating: -1
 
1845 Spain Spain polity rating: -2
 
1849 Spain polity rating: -2
1800 Portugal polity rating:
-10;
 
1801 Portugal polity rating:
-66
 
1802 Portugal polity rating:
-10
 
1807
Portugal polity rating:
-66
 
1808-1815
Rio de Janeiro capital of Portuguese empire
 
1820 Portugal polity rating:
-88
 
1823 Portugal polity rating:
-3
 
1825 Portugal recognizes Brazil as independent
nation
 
1834 Portugal polity rating:
-4
 
1836 Portugal polity rating: +1
 
1842 Portugal polity rating:
-4
 
 
 
1849
Portugal polity rating:
-4









1850-1899
AD
1850 Polity Rating: +9
 
1854 Polity Rating: +8
 
in Reconstruction after the Civil War (late 1860s) the newly freed slaves became citizens with (in the case of men) a nominal right to vote,
 
15th Amendment (1870): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
1872 Polity Rating: +10
 
1899 Polity Rating: +10
1850 Polity rating: +3
 
1800-1900
British empire expanded at rate of 100K sq miles per year during 1800s, that is 1 million square miles per decade, ten million square miles per century
 
1860 British Empire 9.5 million sq miles
 
1861 British Empire 8.5 million square miles, 230 million people
 
Reform Act 1867 - enfranchised all male householders, so increasing male suffrage to the United Kingdom
 
1868 British Empire, 8.1 million square miles
 
"For so small a nation to add to its domains in the course of a single generation (1870-1900 AD) an area of 4,754,000 square miles,*4 with an estimated population of 88,000,000, is a historical fact of great significance....Accepting Sir Robert Giffen's estimate*5 of the size of our Empire (including Egypt and the Soudan) at about 13,000,000 square miles, with a population of some 400 to 420 millions (of whom about 50,000,000 are of British race and speech), we find that one-third of this Empire, containing quite one-fourth of the total population of the Empire, has been acquired within the last generation (1870-1900 AD)."
 
1880 Polity rating: +7
 
Representation of the People Act 1884 - amended the Reform Act of 1867 so that it would apply equally to the countryside; this brought the voting population to 5,500,000, although 40% of males were still disenfranchised, whilst women could not vote
1899 Polity Rating: +7
 
1897 British empire covers 11 million square miles and 372 million people
 
1897
British empire added 145K sq miles of territory per year during Queen Victoria's reign 1837-1897
 
 

1850 Prussia Polity Rating: -8
 
1854 Prussia Polity Rating: -9
 
1858 Prussia Polity Rating: -8
 
1859 Prussia Polity Rating: -7
 
1867 Prussia 
Polity Rating: - 88
 
1868 Germany 
Polity Rating: - 88
 
1871 Germany
Polity Rating: - 4
 
1875-1900: Germany aquires 1 million square miles and 17 million subjects (African colonies)
 
1890 Germany Polity Rating: +1
 
1899 Germany Polity Rating: +1


1850 Austria Polity Rating: -6
 
1861 Austria Polity Rating: -4
 
1867 Hungary Polity Rating: -4
 
1899 Austria Polity Rating: -4
1899 Hungary Polity Rating: -4
1850 France Polity Rating: +6
 
1851 Polity Rating: -88
 
1852 Polity Rating: -8
 
1860 Polity Rating: -88
 
1863 Polity Rating: -6
 
1869 Polity Rating: -3
 
1870 Polity Rating:  -88
 
1875-1900
France acquires 3.5 million square miles of colonies inhabited by 40 million subjects
 
1877 Polity Rating: +7
 
1884: Those who believe the 'Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion', to be genuine and not a fraud, believe that in 1884, Russian spy Glinka obtained a copy of 'Protocols' from the Jew Schorst, who stole them from the Mizraim freemasonry lodge in Paris.  If the 'Protocols' were a fraud, they show what the fraudsters believed regarding real and possible conspiratorial tendencies amongst Jews. See 'Illuminati' notes below.
 
1898 Polity Rating:  +8
 
1899 Polity Rating: +8
1850 Russia Polity Rating: -10
 
Russian Empire land area  22.8 million km² or 8.8 million mi² (under Nicholas II in 1895)
 
1899 Polity Rating: -10


1850 Polity Rating: -6
 
1860 Polity Rating: -66
 
1899 Polity Rating: -6
1850 Polity Rating: -10
 
1858 Polity Rating: -88
 
1868 Polity Rating: +1
 
1899 Polity Rating: +1



1850 Spain polity rating: -2
 
1852 Spain polity rating: -5
 
1859 Spain polity rating: -6
 
1868 Spain polity rating: -88
 
1871 Spain polity rating: +1
 
1873: Spain polity rating: -5
 
1874: Spain polity rating: -88
 
1876 Spain polity rating: -1
 
1879 Spain polity rating: +4
 
1890 Spain polity rating: +5
 
1895 Spain polity rating: +4
 
1899 Spain polity rating: +4
1850
Portugal polity rating:
-4

 
1855 Portugal polity rating:
-6
 
1860 Portugal polity rating:
-7
 
1880 Portugal polity rating: -5
 
1890 Portugal polity rating:
-4
 
1899
Portugal polity rating:
-4









1900-1949
AD
1900 Polity Rating: +10
 

American Empire - 10 million km² or 3.86 million mi² (1898-1902 and 1906-1908)
 
1920
19th Amendment (1920): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
 
1922
US congress passes resolution calling for establishment of a Jewish homeland
 
1947
"A report by the Jewish Virtual Library says during 1949-2007, the US foreign aid to Israel amounted to over $101 billion.
"
 
 
1948
on May 14, 1948, the United States became the first nation to grant diplomatic recognition to the new state of Israel.  
 
1948
Soon after the Truman decision in 1948 to recognize Israel as a Jewish State, the US Congress approved an aid package in the form of a $135 million Export-Import Bank loan in order to take in holocaust survivors and provide them with homes.
 
1948
Truman signs Marshall plan into law; by 1952 Marshall plan has provided $13 billion in aid to war-ravaged Europe
 
1948
"American Jewish voting in the 1948 Presidential election leaned heavily for President Truman but also cast a substantial number of votes for third party "Progressive" leader Henry Wallace who had spoken out even more strongly on behalf of American support for the Zionist position and aid to Israel."
 
1948
"Taking (as always) their lead from Moscow, the (hitherto anti-Zionist) Palestinian communist organizations merged their separate Arab and Jewish divisions in October, 1948, giving unconditional support to the Israeli war effort and urging the Israel Defense Forces to 'drive on toward the Suez Canal and hand British Imperialism a stinging defeat'"!
 
1948
U.S. recognition of and aid to Israel in 1948 represented a commitment to help the Jewish state defend the Palestinian land it had captured
 
1948
"The state of Israel was created in 1948 through the ethnic cleansing of Christians and Muslims, who had originally composed 95 percent of the inhabitants of land that colonists wanted for a Jewish-only state."
 
1948
"President Harry Truman gave US diplomatic recognition to the new Israeli state immediately following its proclamation in May 1948. In doing so, he rejected the advice of nearly every American official who was responsible for US foreign policy. Secretary of State George C. Marshall angrily told Truman that recognizing Israel would put partisan political interests above America’s national interest "
1948
In 1948, President Harry Truman, who sympathized with the plight of Israel in its early days, placed an arms embargo on Israel and her Arab neighbors in order to keep the United States neutral in the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict."

 

1948 Harry Truman was a great friend of Israel and a key figure in the establishment of the state. Still, when Israel was fighting for its very life in 1948, Truman imposed a crippling arms embargo that put the Jews at a disadvantage against Arab forces that had no difficulty obtaining arms."

1948 "Truman’s recognition of Israel against the advice of his cabinet to gain Jewish votes decided the fate of millions of Palestinians. "

1948
"It was America's President Harry S. Truman, a 33rd degree Freemason, who, in 1948, endorsed the proposal for a nation-state for the Jews to be founded in the Middle East. It was also the U.S.A., under Truman, that was the first country in the world to recognize Israel as an independent nation and sponsor its membership in the United Nations."
 
1948
"The fact is that President Truman eventually decided against the pro-Arab “professional opinion” of his Secretary of State, General George Marshall and the Arabists of the State Department"
 
1948
"The month after President Truman recognised the state of Israel, a June 1948 Gallup poll found three times as much sympathy for the Middle East’s Jews as for the Middle East’s Arabs"
 
1948
" Although aid to Israel has been even higher, the peace treaty guaranteed Egypt $1.3 billion a year in military aid, with economic assistance since averaging an annual $815 million a year. In the three decades that followed (1973-2004), Egypt has received a total of over $50 billion in aid from the United States.[3] "
 
1949
 American foreign aid to Israel amounted to $3.2 billion in the years from 1949 to 1973

 
1949 Polity Rating: +10
 
1900 UK Polity Rating: + 7
 
1900 UK population 38 million
 
1900 British Empire 381 million people, 11.5 million square miles
 
1901 Polity Rating: +8
 
1901 British Empire: 12 million square miles, 400 million persons, 54 million whites, 58 million Christians
 
1909 British Empire 12.7 million square miles
 
"Between 1815 and 1914, a period referred to as Britain's "imperial century" by some historians, around 10,000,000 square miles (25,899,881 km²) of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire."
 
1918 Representation of the People Act 1918 - the consequences of World War I persuaded the government to expand the right to vote, not only for the many men who fought in the war who were disenfranchised, but also for the women who helped in the factories and elsewhere as part of the war effort. Property restrictions for voting were lifted for men, who could vote at 21; however women's votes were given with these property restrictions, and were limited to those over 30 years old. This raised the electorate from 7.7 million to 21.4 million with women making up 40% of the electorate. Seven percent of the electorate had more than one vote. The first election with this system was the United Kingdom general election, 1918
 
1920: Winston Churchill in UK magazine article: Jews lead and control Russian Bolshevik communist government; Zionism should be promted; Zionism provides Jews with honorable superior alternative to Bolshevism. See 'Illuminati' section of notes below.
1921, British Empire is at its zenith, ruling over 25% of the world's population and 33% of the world's land area, 14.3 million square miles From this point on the British Empire went into decline 
 
1922 Polity Rating: +10
 
1924: UK author Nesta Webster (1876-1960) publishes 'anti-semitic' 'Secret societies and Subversive Movements' in London. Her opinion was that even if 'Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion' was fake, it still accurately described Jewish attitudes and conduct. Winston Churchill praised Webster for 'ably' showing that International Jewish Communism was behind the French Revolution.
1928 Representation of the People Act 1928 - this made women's voting rights equal with men, with voting possible at 21 with no property restrictions
 
1938 UK population 49 million; British Empire, 17 million square miles; including 1.4 million square miles taken from Germany at conclusion of WW I; also including 1.1 million square miles acquired through conquest from 1925-38; 68 million whites in empire;
Britain seized 75% of German colonies after WW I;
 
Representation of the People Act 1948 - the act was passed to prevent plural voting
 
1949 Polity Rating: +10

1900 Germany Polity Rating: +1
 
1900 Germany population 52 million; colonies 1 million square miles, 15 million subjects
 
1909 Germany Polity Rating: +2
 
1918 Germany Polity Rating: -88
 
1919 Germany Polity Rating: -6
 
1933 Germany Polity Rating: -9
 
1945 Germany Polity Rating: -66
 
1945 East Germany Polity Rating: -66
 
1945 West Germany Polity Rating: -66
 
1949 West Germany Polity Rating: +10
 
 
1949 East Germany Polity Rating: -7
 
 
 
 


 
1900 Austria Polity Rating: -4
 
1900 Hungary Polity Rating: -4
 
1918 Austria Polity Rating: -88
 
1918 Hungary Polity Rating: -88
 
1919 Hungary Polity Rating: -7
 
1920 Austria Polity Rating: +8
 
1920 Hungary Polity Rating: -1
 
1933 Austria Polity Rating: -88
 
1934 Austria Polity Rating: -9
 
1938 Austria Polity Rating: -77
 
1944 Hungary Polity Rating: -66
 
1945 Austria Polity Rating: -88
 
1945 Hungary Polity Rating: -88
 
1946 Austria Polity Rating: +10
 
1948 Hungary Polity Rating: -7
 
1949 Austria Polity Rating: +10
 
1949 Hungary Polity Rating: -7
1900 France Polity Rating:  +8
 
1900 France homeland
population 39 million; colonies 3.7 million square miles, 56 million persons 
 
1919 Polity Rating: +9
 
1930 Polity Rating: +10
 
French Empire - 12.5 million km² or 4.82 million mi² (under President Albert Lebrun in 1938)
 
1940 Polity Rating: -9
 
1944 Polity Rating: -88
 
1946 Polity Rating: +10
 
1949 Polity Rating: +10
1900 Russia
Polity Rating: -10
 
1903: 'Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion', published in St. Petersburg, Russia.  If the 'Protocols' were a fraud, they show what the fraudsters believed regarding real and possible conspiratorial tendencies amongst Jews. See 'Illuminati' notes below.
 
1905 Polity Rating:  -88
 
1906 Polity Rating: -6
 
1916-22 Polity Rating: -1
 
1922 USSR Polity Rating: -7
 
1927 USSR Polity Rating: -8
 
1933 USSR Polity Rating: -9
 
1948
Soviets recognize and give aid to Israel
 
1949 USSR Polity Rating: -9


1900 Polity Rating: -6
 
1911 Polity Rating: -88
 
1912 Polity Rating: +2
 
1913 Polity Rating: -88
 
1914 Polity Rating: -5
 
1937 Polity Rating: -66
 
1946 Polity Rating: -5
 
1949 Polity Rating: -8
 
 
1900 Polity Rating: +1
 
1945 Polity Rating: -66
 
1949 Polity Rating: -66

1948 Korea North Polity Rating: -7 
 
1948 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -3 
 
1949 Korea North Polity Rating: -7
 
1949 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -3 
 
 
 


1949 Taiwan Polity rating: -8
1900 Spain polity rating: +6
 
1923 Spain polity rating: -7
 
1925 Spain polity rating:  -6
 
1930 Spain polity rating:
-88
 
1931 Spain polity rating:  +7
 
1939 Spain polity rating:  -7
 
1949 Spain polity rating:  -7
 
 
 
 
1900
Portugal polity rating:
-3
 
1906
Portugal polity rating:
-1
 
1907
Portugal polity rating:
-9
 
1908
Portugal polity rating:
+2
 
1910
Portugal polity rating:
-88
 
1911
Portugal polity rating:
+7
 
1926
Portugal polity rating:
-88
 
1930
Portugal polity rating:
-9
 
1949
Portugal polity rating:
-9
 
 









1949
AD
Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations on May 11,           1949 Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations on May 11, 1949         
1950-1999
AD
1950 Polity Rating: +10
 
1956
"President Dwight Eisenhower suspends aid to Israel in protest at its invasion of Egypt. "
 
1957
"President Dwight Eisenhower resumes aid to Israel."
 
1960
"It was actually not until the administration of President John Kennedy in the early 1960s that American arms shipments were made to Israel. "
 
1964
24th Amendment (1964): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax."
 
1965
"Johnson–who as Senate Majority Leader in the 1950s had been one of Israel’s strongest backers in Congress–did not share Kennedy’s obsession with the refugee and nuclear issues, and his first budget, for fiscal year 1965, allocated $71 million in aid to Israel–an increase of 75 percent over Kennedy’s final budget. The amount nearly doubled in 1966, to $130 million."
 
1966
full enfranchisement of citizens was not secured until after the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) which campaigned for freedom of oppression from white Americans, gained passage by the United States Congress of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
 
1967
"While Israel received less than $24 million of U.S. aid in 1967, it received more than $106 million in 1968, a 450 percent increase in only one year. In 1969, U.S. aid to Israel was increased again to $160.3 million, more than half of which was in military assistance"
 
 
26th Amendment (1971): "The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age."
 
1973
Until 1973, aid was mainly made up of military, economic and export-import bank loans, although annual economic grants ranging between $0.1 and $74 million were also offered between the years 1951 and 1962.
 
1973
After the 1973 (Arab-Israeli) war, the US aid to Israel constituted largely of military and economic grants to help strengthen the Israeli defense forces. This included $12-80 million, which was annually granted towards the establishment of Jewish refugee camps.
 
1973
"a recent study has shown that while American
foreign aid to Israel amounted to $3.2 billion
in the years from 1949 to 1973, it grew to a
total of $75 billion for the period from 1974
to 1997.
"
 
1973
"1973 Egypt and Syria attack Israel to free Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula. The US gives $2.2 billion in emergency aid to Israel, turning tide of battle to Israel’s favor. "
 
1974
US foreign aid to Israel) grew to a total of $75 billion for the period from 1974 to 1997.
 
1974
" From 1974 to 1976, the United States granted Israel $5.8 billion in combined civilian and military assistance, a level at which aid has since approximately remained (up till 2003)"
 
1978
" In 1978, at Camp David, President Jimmy Carter threatened to cut Israeli aid should they fail to evince more flexibility in the negotiations."
 
1980
Election of republican conservative Ronald Reagan ushers in era of large trade deficits and federal budget deficits for US
 
1985
US institutes free trade agreement with Israel
 
1985
"From
1985 on, Congress annually provides Israel $3 billion in all grant aid. "
 
1987-2002
1987-2002, The US congress has annually approves a foreign aid bill totaling an average of $3 billion to Israel, $1.2 billion in economical aid, and $1.8 billion in military aid.
 
1991
After the gulf war in 1991, the US has additionally been offering Israel $2 billion annually in federal loan guarantees, which brings the total US foreign aid to Israel to about $5 billion, or $13.7 million per day. This amount excludes the approximate $1.5 billion in total tax-deductible private donations from numerous Jewish charities and individual donors.
 
1998
In 1998, according to an agreement with the Clinton Administration and Congress, Israel voluntarily requested to decrease its financial dependence on US economic aid by phasing it out over a period of 10 years....The $1.2 billion in economic aid will (was supposed to be) be reduced by $120 million each year until it is down to zero in the year 2008.
 
1999 Polity Rating: +10
1950 Polity Rating: +10
 
Representation of the People Act 1969 - extension of suffrage to those 18 and older
1999 Polity Rating: +10

1950 East
Germany Polity Rating: -8
 
1950 West Germany Polity Rating: +10
 
 
1960  East
Germany Polity Rating: -9
 
1989  East
Germany Polity Rating: -88
 
1990 West Germany Polity Rating: +10
 
1990 United Germany Polity Rating: +10
 
1999 United Germany Polity Rating: +10
1950 Austria Polity Rating: +10
 
1950 Hungary Polity Rating: -7
 
1956 Hungary Polity Rating: -66
 
1957 Hungary Polity Rating: -7
 
1988 Hungary Polity Rating: -2
 
1989 Hungary Polity Rating: -88
 
1990 Hungary Polity Rating: +10
 
1999 Austria Polity Rating: +10
 
1999 Hungary Polity Rating: +10
1950 Polity Rating: +10
 
1958 Polity Rating: +5
 
1969 Polity Rating: +8
 
1986 Polity Rating: +9
1999 Polity Rating:  +9
1950 USSR Polity Rating: -9
 
1953 USSR Polity Rating: -7
 
1988 USSR Polity Rating: -6
 
1989 Polity Rating: -4
 
1990 Polity Rating: 0
 
 
 
1992 Polity Rating: +5
 
1993 Polity Rating: +3
 
1999 Polity Rating: +3


1950 China Polity Rating: -8 
 
1966 Polity Rating: -9
 
1969 Polity Rating: -8
 
1976 Polity Rating: -7
 
1999 Polity Rating: -7
 
1950 Polity Rating: -66
 
1952 Polity Rating: +10
 
1999 Polity Rating: +10
1950 Korea North Polity Rating: -7 
 
1950 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -3 
 
1952 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -4 
 
1956 Korea North Polity Rating: -8
 
1960 Korea 
South Polity Rating: 
+8 
 
1961 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -7
 
1963 Korea 
South Polity Rating: 
+3 
 
 
1966 Korea North Polity Rating: -9
 
1972 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -9
 
1973 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -8
 
1981 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -5
 
1987 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -88
 
1988 Korea 
South Polity Rating: -6
 
 
1998 Korea 
South Polity Rating: 
+8 
 
 
1999 Korea North Polity Rating: -9 
 
1999 Korea 
South Polity Rating: +8
1976 United Vietnam Polity Rating: -7
1999
United Vietnam Polity Rating: -7 
1950 Taiwan Polity rating: -8
 
1975
Taiwan Polity rating: -7
 
1987
Taiwan Polity rating: -1
 
1992
Taiwan Polity rating: +7
 
1996
Taiwan Polity rating: +8
 
1997 Taiwan Polity rating: +9
 
1999
Taiwan Polity rating: +9
 
 
 
 

1950
Spain polity rating:  -7
 
1975 Spain polity rating: -88
 
1978 Spain polity rating: +9
 
1982 Spain polity rating: +2
 
1999
Spain polity rating:
+10
1950
Portugal polity rating:
-9
 
1974
Portugal polity rating:
-88
 
1976
Portugal polity rating:
+9
 
1982
Portugal polity rating:
+10
 
1999
Portugal polity rating:
+10










2000-2050
AD
2000 Polity Rating: +10
 
2002
US aid to Israel Constitutes 30% of the total US foreign aid budget, which renders Israel to be the largest recipient of US aid in the world

2002
Three quarters of the military aid to Israel goes for importing US-made military equipment such as F-16 and Apache attack helicopters. This creates a job market for US citizens and transforms Palestine into a test ground for US made weaponry
 
2003
" From 1948 to 2003, direct U.S. aid to Israel totaled. $89.9 billion. "
 
2005
"Since May, 2005 the Military Museum in Prague has displayed a special exhibition on the Czech aid to Israel in 1948.
"
 
2006
"
 
2008
"Israel has never been self-supporting. It has always required massive subsidies from the outside – above all from the United States. Total direct US aid to Israel has amounted to well over $140 billion (in 2003 dollars). "
 
2008
"Shirl McArthur, a retired US foreign service officer, said in a Washington Report on Middle East Affairs in November 2008 that a conservative estimate of total direct US aid to Israel amounts to "almost $114 Billion". ...In addition, Germany and other European states and companies have paid out many billions in “restitution”, and wealthy Jewish communities, especially in the U.S., have provided substantial financial assistance.
"
 
2008
"Total direct U.S. aid to Israel has amounted to well over $140 billion (in 2003 dollars). "
 
2008
"Washington, DC—Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid made the following speech today at the American Israel Public Affairs Committee’s (AIPAC) Annual Policy Conference, reiterating Democrats’ strong commitment to Israel’s security and prosperity and criticizing those who politicize for political gain the issue of that support. “Every Democratic President from Truman to Clinton has strengthened that bond by providing for Israel’s security and brokering peace,” Reid said.  “And with the Democratic nominee, that bond – that ironclad commitment – will remain as strong as ever.  Don’t let anyone looking to politicize the issue of Israel tell you otherwise....The United States must continue to provide robust military aid to Israel so that Israel can further enhance its qualitative military advantage in the region.  I fully support that military aid and the new ’10-year plan,’ and I will urge my Senate colleagues to do the same...As the leader of the United States Senate, I commit on behalf of the Democratic majority, and all Senators, that we will continue to defend the security and prosperity of Israel – as we always have since Harry S Truman took those first bold steps....And you can be just as sure where the Democratic nominee stands: four-square with Israel.  That is certain"
2000 Polity Rating: +10

2000 United Germany Polity Rating: +10
2000 Austria Polity Rating: +10
 
2000 Hungary Polity Rating: +10
2000 Polity Rating: +9
2000 Polity Rating: +6

2000 Polity Rating: -7

2000
Korea North Polity Rating: -9 
 
2000
 Korea 
South Polity Rating: 
+8 
2000 United Vietnam Polity Rating: -7
2000
1999
Taiwan Polity rating: +9
 
2004
1999
Taiwan Polity rating: +10
2000 Spain polity rating:
+10

2000
Portugal polity rating:
+10
 
2006
Brazil 191 million population
million; 50%, 93 million whites, Portuguese dominant ethnic element amongst the whites, &  also represented genetically amongst the 'non-white'; population of Portugal is 11 million
 

 













































































































































































































































































 

Notes/Links (sources not checked for 'political correctness'):
 
Voting rights
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suffrage
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy
 
http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/inscr.htm
 
Excel Polity IV times-series data
 
http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/p4manualv2007.pdf  (Polity IV Dataset Users Manual )
 

British Empire
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_1812
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franco-Prussian_War
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish%E2%80%93American_War
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War
 
British East India Company: Encyclopedia - British Empire  The British Empire was the world's first global power and the largest empire in history. It was a product of the European Age of Discovery that began with the global maritime empires of Portugal and Spain in the late 15th century. By 1921 the British Empire held sway over a population of about 470–570 million people—roughly a quarter of the world's population—and covered about 14.3 million square miles (more than 37 million km²), almost a third of the world's total land area.
-- http://www.experiencefestival.com/british_east_india_company
 
Square miles, population, and annual revenue of the colonies of the British empire, 1924
http://www.britishempire.co.uk/timeline/colonies1924.htm
 
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/20century/topic_1/welcome.htm
 
http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9405E7D91531E733A25753C1A9659C946797D6CF
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Empire
 
http://century.guardian.co.uk/1899-1909/Story/0,,126377,00.html
 
http://chestofbooks.com/history/reference/Home-Cyclopedia-Of-History/The-British-Empire.html
 
http://chestofbooks.com/history/reference/Home-Cyclopedia-Of-History/
 
http://books.google.com/books?id=ZDn17QpuGv8C&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=%22british+empire%22+%22square+miles%22&source=bl&ots=Ay0VamePZ8&sig=RkmsIeRLcE7rO1WgzfS-PDA9xWM&hl=en&ei=ESTAStq8Garg8AaFrrywAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=29#v=onepage&q=%22british%20empire%22%20%22square%20miles%22&f=false
 
http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/non-fiction/article2677599.ece
 
http://books.google.com/books?id=20MZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA402&lpg=PA402&dq=%22british+empire%22+%22square+miles%22&source=bl&ots=YLgIJxWeuW&sig=tLOBZ57s1PiAYEZaT716JKGkGQI&hl=en&ei=ESTAStq8Garg8AaFrrywAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=43#v=onepage&q=%22british%20empire%22%20%22square%20miles%22&f=false
 
http://books.google.com/books?id=nqkm9Jt_idsC&pg=PA209&lpg=PA209&dq=%22british+empire%22+%22square+miles%22&source=bl&ots=ROLgJYnVLN&sig=TWagWhj4lBjlcx-4ouYZQ2oUjaw&hl=en&ei=ESTAStq8Garg8AaFrrywAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=62#v=onepage&q=%22british%20empire%22%20%22square%20miles%22&f=false
 
http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/text/chap_page.jsp;jsessionid=B3A8A19C9DED52CC82F903CC817F5AA0?t_id=SRC_P&c_id=11&cpub_id=EW1871GEN
 
http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/kenanderson/histemp/highnoon1.html
 
http://www.niallferguson.com/site/FERG/Templates/ArticleItem.aspx?pageid=167
 
especially informative
http://www.econlib.org/library/YPDBooks/Hobson/hbsnImp2.html
 

Portuguese Empire Brazil
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Brazilian
 
http://www.brazzil.com/2003/html/news/articles/may03/p129may03.htm
 

Spanish empire
 
http://www.oldandsold.com/articles35/modern-europe-29.shtml
 
http://www.historycooperative.org/proceedings/seascapes/phillips.html
 
http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/3357-new-spain-the-right-of-conquest
 
http://www.wnponline.org/wnp/wnp0311/louisianapurchase.htm
 
http://wikirank.com/en/Treaty_of_Guadalupe_Hidalgo
 

Israel
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel
 
http://www.ccmep.org/hotnews2/usforeignaid041402.html
 
http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/1998/issue3/jv2n3a2.html
 
http://wapedia.mobi/en/Israel_%E2%80%93_United_States_relations
 
http://www.sullivan-county.com/islam/israel1948.htm
 
http://www.ameu.org/page.asp?iid=152&aid=196&pg=1
 
http://alaskansforpalestine.org/?p=315
 
http://meria.biu.ac.il/journal/1998/issue3/lieber.pdf
 
http://www.ihr.org/interviewmay08.html
 
http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=95058&sectionid=3510303
 
http://ftp.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf
 
http://www.pcusa.org/worldwide/israelpalestine/resources/7usandisrael.pdf
 
http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=168557
 
http://democrats.senate.gov/newsroom/record.cfm?id=298718&
 
http://www.cultural-expressions.com/thesis/truthwillsetyoufree.htm
 
http://www.newenglishreview.org/custpage.cfm/frm/13316/sec_id/13316
 
http://bfdr-bd.com/content/?p=61
 
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3401802159.html
 
http://www.commentarymagazine.com/blogs/index.php/maoz/21422
 
http://www.mitchellbard.com/articles/defy.html
 
http://americaintheworld.typepad.com/briefings/2008/08/america-and-i-1.html
 
http://www.unitedjerusalem.org/US_ISRAEL_RELATION/us_israel_relation.asp

General Empires
 
1900 Data:
 
Number of Colonies Area. Square Miles.
Population.
Mother
Country.
Colonies, &c. Mother
Country.
Colonies, &c.

United Kingdom 50 120,979 11,605,238 40,559,954 345,222,239
France 33 204,092 3,740,756 38,517,975 56,401,860
Germany 13 208,830 1,027,120 52,279,901 14,687,000
Netherlands 3 12,648 782,862 5,074,632 35,115,711
Portugal 9 36,038 801,100 5,049,729 9,148,707
Spain 3 197,670 243,877 17,565,632 136,000
Italy 2 110,646 188,500 31,856,675 850,000
Austria-Hungary 2 241,032 23,570 41,244,811 1,568,092
Denmark 3 15,289 86,634 2,185,335 114,229
Russia 3 8,660,395 255,550 128,932,173 15,684,000
Turkey 4 1,111,741 465,000 23,834,500 14,956,236
China 5 1,336,841 2,881,560 386,000,000 16,680,000
U.S.A. 6 3,557,000 172,091 77,000,000 10,544,617

Total 136 15,813,201 22,273,858 850,103,317 521,108,791
 
Above table from    http://www.econlib.org/library/YPDBooks/Hobson/hbsnImp2.html
 
http://www.biblestudy.org/maps/what-are-the-greatest-empires-in-history.html
 

'Illuminati'
 
----------------------------------------
 
September 9, 1785: Seven months after the Bavarian government's first decree against the Illuminati, Utzschneider, Grünberger, and Cosandey, who defected from the (Bavarian) Illuminati at the time it was ruled by Weishaupt the founder of the Illuminati, gave the following testimony to the Bavarian government:
 
"The Superiors (of the Illuminati) aim at procuring from their inferiors diplomatic acts, documents, and original writings. With pleasure they see them commit any treasons or treacherous acts (required to procure the documents)...The Illuminees from these first degrees are educated in the following principles: I. "The Illuminee who wishes to rise to the highest degree must be free from all religion; for a religionist (as they call every man who has any religion) will never be admitted to the highest degrees...III. The end sanctifies the means. The welfare of the Order will be a justification for calumnies,poisonings, assassinations, perjuries, treasons, rebellions; in short, for all that the prejudices of ('unilluminated') men lead them to call crimes. IV. "One must be more submissive to the Superiors of Illuminism, than to the sovereigns or magistrates who govern the people; and he that gives the preference to sovereigns or governors of the people is useless to us... The governors of nations are despots when they are not directed by us.-They can have no authority over us, who are free men. V. The love of one's prince and of one's country are incompatible with...the ultimate ends of the Order... The Superiors of Illuminism are to be looked upon as the most perfect and the most enlightened of men; no doubts are to be entertained even of their infallibility....They use every possible artifice to get the different post-offices in all countries entrusted to the care of their adepts only. They also boast that they are in possession of the secret of opening and reclosing letters without the circumstance being perceived...the Illuminees sought to impose upon us shamefully, by assuring us that his Electoral Highness was a member of their Order. We clearly saw that a Prince knowing his own interests, and wholly attending to the paternal care of his subjects, would never countenance a Sect, spreading through almost every province under the cloak of Free-masonry; because it sows division and discord between parents and their children, between Princes and their subjects, and among the most sincere friends; because on all important occasions it would install partiality on the seats of justice and in the councils, as it always prefers the welfare of the Order to that of the state, and the interests of its adepts to those of the prophane. Experience had convinced us, that they would soon succeed in perverting all the Bavarian youth. The leading feature in the generality of their adepts were irreligion, depravity of morals, disobedience to their Prince and to their parents, and the neglect of all useful studies. We saw that the fatal consequence of Illuminism would be, to create a general distrust...We were not to be deterred by that threat so often repeated, That no Prince can save him that betrays us. We abandoned, one after the other, this Sect, which ...has already spread itself in Italy, and particularly at Venice, in Austria, in Holland, in Saxony, on the Rhine, particularly at Frankfort, and even as far as America.-The Illuminees meddle as much as possible in state affairs, and excite troubles wherever their Order can be benefited by them (the troubles)...After we had retired from the Order, the Illuminees calumniated us on all sides in the most infamous manner. Their cabal made us fail in every request we presented; succeeding in rendering us hateful and odious to our superiors, they even carried their calumnies so far as to pretend that one of us had committed murder..."
 
-- http://www.conspiracyresearch.org/wiki/index.php?title=Illuminati&redirect=no#Illuminati_Conspiracy_Part_One:_A_Precise_Exegesis_on_the_Available_Evidence
 
----------------------------------------
 
Conspiracy Theorist Nesta Webster (1876-1960) writing in 1924 re the Evidence of Undisputed Authenticity Uncovered by Bavarian Police from 1784-1787 regarding Weishaupt's 'Illuminati' club
 
I felt that the important overlooked thing, was not speculation re whether some rumour was true or not, but rather analysis regarding the implications of evidence of undisputed authenticity. Nesta Webster (1876-1960) in her 1924 book 'Secret societies and Subversive Movements'  attempted to focus on the impications of the evidence of undisputed authenticity seized by Bavaraian police. I found Webster's writing to be somewhat  verbose vague, and redundant and to jump to conclusions unjustified by the quoted excerpts she provides. I took upon myself the long hard but necessaary work of boiling down Webster's words by deleting words and replacing the deleted words with '...' and my own words in parentheses:

" ..the Masonic Cyclopædia observes that the Illuminati “ were, as a rule, men of the strictest morality and humanity, and the ideas they sought to instil were those which have found universal acceptance in our own times.”  Preston, in his Illustrations of Masonry, also does his best to gloss over the faults of the Order, and even “ the historian of Freemasonry ” devotes to its founder this astounding apology...One can only conclude that these extraordinary exonerations of an Order bitterly hostile to the true aims of Masonry proceed from ignorance of the real nature of Illuminism.  In order to judge of this it is only necessary to consult the writings of the Illuminati themselves, which are contained in the following works : 1.  Einige Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens (Munich, 1787). 2.  Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften, etc. (Munich, 1787). 3.  Die neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo in dem Illuminaten-Orden (Munich, 1794)...All these consist in the correspondence and papers of the Order which were seized by the Bavarian Government...The authenticity of these documents has never been denied even by the Illuminati themselves...we shall now see from the evidence of their own writings, how far the Illuminati can be regarded as a praiseworthy and cruelly maligned Order.  Let us begin with their attitude towards Freemasonry...From the moment of Weishaupt’s admission into Freemasonry his whole conduct was a violation of the Masonic code...Weishaupt shows himself not only an intriguer but a charlatan, inventing mysteries and degrees to impose on the credulity of his followers...whilst (Weishaupt was) heartily despising Freemasonry, theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and mysticism of every kind, his (Weishaupt's) association with Philo leads him to perceive the utility of all these as a bait...The perfidy of the Illuminati with regard to the Freemasons is... apparent.  Even Mounier, who set out to refute Barruel on the strength of the information supplied to him by the Illuminatus Bode, admits their duplicity in this respect...(Webster quotes source) 'it was resolved to profit by Freemasonry whilst profoundly despising it.  They decided that the degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, and Scotch Knight should be added to those of the Illuminati, and that they would boast of possessing exclusively the real secrets of the Freemasons and affirm that Illuminism was the real primitive Freemasonry'..."The papers of the Order seized in Bavaria and published,” Mounier says again, show that “ the Illuminati employed the forms of Freemasonry, but that they considered it in itself, apart from their own degrees, as a puerile absurdity and that they detested the Rose-Croix.”...Why in the face of all this should any British Masons take up the cudgels for the Illuminati and vilify Robison and Barruel for exposing them?  The American Mackey, as a consistent Freemason, shows scant sympathy for this traitor in the masonic camp.  “ Weishaupt,” he writes, “ was a radical in politics and an infidel in religion, and he organized this association, not more for the purpose of aggrandizing himself, than of overturning Christianity and the institutions of society.” The truth is that Weishaupt was one of the greatest enemies of British Freemasonry who ever lived, and genuine Freemasons will do themselves no good by defending him or his abominable system...Of course on their face value the Illuminati appear wholly admirable...this is the mere stock-in-trade of the secret society leader as of the fraudulent company promoter, to whom the first essentials are a glowing prospectus and a long list of highly respectable patrons who know nothing whatever about the inner workings of the concern.  These methods, pursued as early as the ninth century by Abdullah ibn Maymun, enter largely into the policy of Frederick the Great, Voltaire, and his “ brothers ” in philosophy—or in Freemasonry....Weishaupt is careful in general to exhibit the face of a benign philosopher and even of a Christian evangelist ;  it is only at moments that he drops the mask and reveals the grinning satyr behind it. Accordingly in the published statutes of the Illuminati no hint of subversive intentions will be found ;  indeed the “ Obligation ” expressly states that “ nothing against the State, religion, or morals is undertaken.”...Yet what is Weishaupt’s real political theory ?  No other than that of modern Anarchy, that man should govern himself and rulers should be gradually done away with....(according to Weishaupt) men must learn not only to be independent of kings but of each other ...whilst the ancient religions taught the hope of a Redeemer who should restore man to his former state, Weishaupt looks to man alone for his restoration....(quotes Weishaupt): "These means (for man's spiritual & governmental salvation) are secret schools of wisdom... through them will Man be saved from his Fall, princes and nations will disappear without violence from the earth, the human race will become one family and the world the abode of reasonable men...Reason will be the only code of Man"...But whilst completely eliminating any idea of divine power outside Man and framing his system on purely political lines, Weishaupt is careful not to shock the susceptibilities of his followers by any open repudiation of Christian doctrines...But one must study Weishaupt’s writings as a whole to apprehend the true measure of his belief in Christ’s teaching...we find him (Weishaupt) adopting the old ruse of representing Christ as a Communist and as a secret-society adept...But this secret doctrine is only to be apprehended by initiates. Weishaupt thus contrives to give a purely political interpretation to Christ’s teaching ...(quotes Weishaupt:) "The mission of Christ was therefore by means of Reason to make men capable of freedom...When at last reason becomes the religion of man, so will the problem be solved...in the way in which I explain Christianity no one need be ashamed to be a Christian, for I leave the name and substitute for it Reason...Had not the noble and elect remained in the background ... new depravity would have broken out in the human race, and through Regents, Priests, and Freemasons Reason would have been banished from the earth.”...In Weishaupt’s masonic system, therefore, the designs of the Order with regard to religion are not confided to the mere Freemasons, but only to the Illuminati.  ...We must consider [says Weishaupt], how we can begin to work under another form.  If only the aim is achieved, it does not matter under what cover it takes place, and a cover is always necessary.  For in concealment lies a great part of our strength.  For this reason we must always cover ourselves with the name of another society.  The lodges that are under Freemasonry are in the meantime the most suitable cloak for our high purpose...As in the spiritual Orders of the Roman Church, religion was, alas ! only a pretence, so must our Order also in a nobler way try to conceal itself behind a learned society or something of the kind. . . . A society concealed in this manner cannot be worked against....We shall be shrouded in impenetrable darkness from spies and emissaries of other societies....Thus, as in the case of Abdullah ibn Maymun’s society,  the extraordinary result was brought about that a multitude of men of divers beliefs were all working together for an object known only to a few of them.”...We have now seen enough of the aims and methods of the Illuminati and the true characters of their leaders from their own admissions.  To make the case complete it would be necessary also to give a résumé of the confessions made by the ex-Illuminati, the four professors Cosandey, Grünberger, Utzschneider, and Renner, as also of the further published works of the Illuminati—but space and time forbid.  What is needed is a complete book on the subject, consisting of translations of the most important passages in all the contemporary German publications. From the extracts given above, can it, however, be seriously contended that Barruel or Robison exaggerated the guilt of the Order?...Even those contemporaries, Mounier and the member of the Illuminati who set out to refute Barruel and Lombard de Langres, merely provide further confirmation of their views.  Thus Mounier is obliged to confess that the real design of Illuminism was “ to undermine all civil order,” and “ Ancien Illumines ” asserts in language no less forcible than Barruel’s own that Weishaupt “ made a code of Machiavellism,” that his method was “ a profound perversity, flattering everything that was base and rancorous in human nature in order to arrive at his ends,” that he was not inspired by “ a wise spirit of reform ” but by a “ fanatical enmity inimical to all authority on earth.”  The only essential points on which the opposing parties differ is that whilst Mounier and “ Ancien Illumine ” deny the influence of the Illuminati on the French Revolution and maintain that they ceased to exist in 1786, Barruel and Lombard de Langres present them as the inspirers of the Jacobins and declare them to be still active after the Revolution had ended.  That on this point, at any rate, the latter were right, we shall see in a further chapter....the source of inspiration from which Weishaupt subsequently drew his anarchic philosophy still remains obscure...there is between the ideas of Weishaupt and of Lessing’s “ Falk ” a distinct resemblance ;  both in the writings of the Illuminati and in Lessing’s Dialogues we find the same vein of irony with regard to Freemasonry, the same design that it should be replaced by a more effectual system,  the same denunciations of the existing social order and of bourgeois society, the same theory that “ men should be self-governing,” the same plan of obliterating all distinctions between nations, even the same simile of the bee-hive as applied to human life which, as I have shown elsewhere, was later on adopted by the anarchist Proudhon....But Lessing was also the friend and admirer of (orthodox Jew) Moses Mendelssohn, who has been suggested as one of Weishaupt’s inspirers...To sum up, I do not so far see in Illuminism a Jewish conspiracy to destroy Christianity, but rather a movement finding its principal dynamic force in the ancient spirit of revolt against the existing social and moral order, aided and abetted perhaps by Jews who saw in it a system that might be turned to their own advantage. ...Weishaupt so admirably understood...how to take from every association, past and present, the portions he required and to weld them all into a working system of terrible efficiency...the methods of the Ismailis and the Assassins...the organization and secrecy of the Freemasons, the philosophy of Machiavelli...he knew moreover, how to enlist the right elements in all existing associations as well as isolated individuals and turn them to his purpose.  So in the army of the Illuminati we find men of every shade of thought...all these differing in their aims yet by Weishaupt’s admirable system of watertight compartments precluded from a knowledge of these differences and all marching, unconsciously or not, towards the same goal. Although this was not the invention of Weishaupt but had been foreshadowed many centuries earlier in the East, it was Weishaupt, so far as we know, who reduced it to a working system for the West—a system which has been adhered to by succeeding groups of world-revolutionaries up to the present day.  It is for this reason that I have quoted at length the writings of the Illuminati—all the ruses, all the hypocrisy, all the subtle methods of camouflage which characterized the Order will be found again in the insidious propaganda both of the modern secret societies and the open revolutionary organizations whose object is to subvert all order, all morality, and all religion. I maintain, therefore, with greater conviction than ever the importance of Illuminism in the history of world-revolution.  But for this co-ordination of methods the philosophers and Encyclopædists might have gone on for ever inveighing against thrones and altars, the Martinistes evoking spirits, the magicians weaving spells, the Freemasons declaiming on universal brotherhood—none of these would have “ armed the hand ” and driven the infuriated mobs into the streets of Paris ;  it was not until the emissaries of Weishaupt formed an alliance with the Orléaniste leaders that vague subversive theory became active revolution... "

-- http://yamaguchy.netfirms.com/7897401/webster/secret_societies/secret_09.html
 
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'Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion'
 
1903: 'Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion', first published in Pavel Kruschevan's newspaper Zamnya, in St. Petersburg, Russia. Some say the Protocols are a fraud designed to incriminate Jews; others consider them to be genuine. The ignored point: evidence that the 'Protocols' were popular and respected amongst Jews. I read somewhere on the internet that prior to WWII, almost every Jewish household in Europe owned and respected a copy of 'the Protocols'. But I have not been able to find the web page where I read this. Even if the Protocols were a fraud, they show what the fraudsters believed regarding real and possible conspiratorial tendencies amongst the Jews. Many statements in 'The Protocols' resemble statements found in the Jewish Talmud, statements made by secret and semi-secret societies, statements made by Jewish leaders subsequent to the time 'the Protocols' were first published in 1903.

Those who believe the Protocols to be the real thing, believe: in 1884, Justine Glinka, a Russian spy in Paris, purchased 'The Protocols' from a Jew, Joseph Schorst, who worked for her as an assistant; the Jew stole a copy of 'The Protocols' from the 'Mizraim lodge' of the Freemasons organization in Paris. Those who consider 'the Protocols' to be a fraud believe: some time between 1895 and 1902,  'the Protocols' were fabricated by the Russian Czar's secret police in a project headed by Pyotr Ivanovich Rachkovsky

'Protocols' Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Protocols_of_the_Elders_of_Zion
http://www.threeworldwars.com/protocols.htm
 
photo of Sergi Nilus, who published 'Protocols' in Russian in 1905, and who believed they were the real thing:
http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/eng_captions/35-1.html
 
quotations of opinions re 'Protocols'
http://www.churchoftrueisrael.com/protocols/views.html
 
Online copies of 'Protocols', that contain the entire 'Protocols' on one html page. This allows one to wield with advantage tools such as Google toolbar which hilight and find all the occurrences of a word on a page:
http://www.whale.to/b/protocols.html
http://www.prothink.org/protocols/
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/secretsoc_20century/secretsoc_20century02.htm
http://www.luisprada.com/Protected/secret_societies_and_their_power.htm
Note: these links were assembled without taking into account the opinions expressed at the websites showing the text of 'Protocols'.
 
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1920, Churchill Extolls Jewish Zionism as alternative to Jewish Bolshevism
 
Winston Churchill, in an article entitled 'Zionism versus Bolshevism.A Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People', appearing February 8, 1920 in the 'Illustrated Sunday Herald', wrote (hard working of replacing words of secondary importance with '...' or fewer replacement words in parentheses, done by me):
 
"The adherents of this sinister confederacy ('International Jews')...have forsaken the faith of their forefathers, and divorced from their minds all spiritual hopes of the next world...From the days of Spartacus-Weishaupt to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxembourg (Germany), and Emma Goldman (United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing. It played, as a modern writer, Mrs. Webster, has so ably shown, a definitely recognizable part in the tragedy of the French Revolution. It has been the mainspring of every subversive movement during the Nineteenth Century; and now at last this band of extraordinary (Jewish) personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become practically the undisputed masters of that enormous empire...There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution, by these international and for the most part atheistical Jews, it is certainly a very great one; it probably outweighs all others. With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of the leading figures are Jews. Moreover, the principal inspiration and driving power comes from the Jewish leaders...In the Soviet institutions the predominance of Jews is even more astonishing. And the prominent, if not indeed the principal, part in the system of terrorism applied by the Extraordinary Commissions for Combating Counter-Revolution has been taken by Jews...The same evil prominence was obtained by Jews in the brief period of terror during which Bela Kun ruled in Hungary. The same phenomenon has been presented in Germany (especially in Bavaria),...the part played by the...(Jews)...in proportion to their numbers in the population (in the revolutionary movements) is astonishing...The fact that in many cases Jewish interests and Jewish places of worship are excepted by the Bolsheviks from their universal hostility has tended more and more to associate the Jewish race in Russia with the villainies, which are now being perpetrated...
Zionism offers the third sphere to the political conceptions of the Jewish race. In violent contrast to international communism, it presents to the Jew a national idea of a commanding character... The cruel penetration of his (communist Jewish Russian leader Trotsky) mind leaves him in no doubt that his schemes of a world-wide communistic State under Jewish domination are directly thwarted and hindered by this new (Zionist) ideal...The struggle which is now beginning between the Zionist and Bolshevik Jews is little less than a struggle for the soul of the Jewish people...It is particularly important in these circumstances that the national Jews in every country...should...take a prominent part in every measure for combating the Bolshevik conspiracy. In this way they will be able to...make it clear to all the world that the Bolshevik movement is...repudiated vehemently by the great mass of the Jewish race...Positive and practicable alternatives (to Bolshevism) are needed in the moral as well as in the social sphere; and in building up with the utmost possible rapidity a Jewish national centre in Palestine...a task is presented on which many blessings rest.
 
-- http://www.fpp.co.uk/bookchapters/WSC/WSCwrote1920.html
 
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"The Bavarian government before, during and after the time of Carl (Karl, Charles) Theodore's persecution of Weishaupt's Bavarian Illuminati (first clash of government and Illuminati) during the 1780s" by David Virgil Hobbs (me)
http://coolname001.angelfire.com/bavariangovt.htm
 
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Other
 
http://www.cyberessays.com/History/160.htm

 
@2009 David Virgil Hobbs